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Thompson Cooper

revised by Rosemary Mitchell

Acton, Charles Januarius Edward (1803–1847), cardinal, was born at Naples on 6 March 1803, the second son of Sir John Francis Edward Acton, sixth baronet (1736–1811), of Aldenham Hall, near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. Sir John was commander-in-chief of the land and sea forces of the kingdom of ...

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Allen, William (1532–1594), cardinal, was born at Rossall Grange in the parish of Poulton-le-Fylde in Lancashire, the third of four sons of John Allen (d. c.1566) and Jane, the daughter of Thomas Lister of Westbury, Yorkshire; there were three younger sisters. The family were minor gentry, leasing ...

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Bainbridge, Christopher (1462/3–1514), ambassador, archbishop of York, and cardinal, was born at Hilton, near Appleby, Westmorland, the eldest of six children of Reginald Bainbridge and Isobel Langton; he owed much in his education and early advancement to his maternal uncle Thomas Langton, bishop of ...

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Beaton [Betoun], David (1494?–1546), cardinal and archbishop of St Andrews, was a younger son of John Beaton (d. 1532), of Balfour, Fife, and Elizabeth Monypenny (d. 1541), daughter of the laird of Pitmilly, Fife.

Beaton entered St Andrews University in 1508, transferred to that of ...

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Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Bégin, Louis-Nazaire (1840–1925), cardinal and archbishop of Quebec, born at La Pointe-Lévis in French Canada on 10 January 1840, was the son of Charles Bégin, farmer, and his wife, Luce Paradis. His parents came of farming stock of French descent. He began his education at the ...

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Boso (d. 1178?), papal official and cardinal, was by the sixteenth century thought to be an Englishman, but was more probably a Tuscan by birth, from Lucca or Pisa, and may have been a canon of Bologna. The only argument in favour of the tradition that he was related to ...

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Bourchier, Thomas (c. 1411–1486), cardinal and archbishop of Canterbury, was probably the second son of William Bourchier, count of Eu (c. 1374–1420), and Anne of Woodstock, daughter and heir of Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and granddaughter of Edward III. His mother's second marriage, to ...

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Castellesi [da Castello, da Corneto], Adriano (c. 1461–1521), cardinal and English agent in Rome, was born in Corneto (now Tarquinia) to 'a modest and almost servile family' (Paschini, 88). Castellesi began a career in the papal bureaucracy, and in 1488 was sent by ...