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Abu Bakar [Abu Bakar ibni al-Marhum Dato Temenggong Sri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim] (1833–1895), sultan of Johore, was born in Teluk Belanga, Singapore, most probably on 3 February 1833, the eldest son of Daing Ibrahim (1810–1862) and his first wife, Encik Ngah (also known as Tengku Andak)...

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Abu Bakar (1833–1895) by unknown photographer © reserved

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Ali, (Chaudhri) Muhammad (1905–1980), prime minister of Pakistan, 1955–6, was born on 15 July 1905 in Nangalambia village, Jullundur district, Punjab province, India. His father was Chaudhri Khairuddin, a farmer and member of the Arain community, his mother, Ayesha Khairdin; he was the third of five children, with two elder sisters and two younger brothers. ...

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Ambedkar [formerly Ambavadekar], Bhimrao Ramji (1891–1956), politician, was born at Mhow in central India on 14 April 1891, the youngest of the fourteen children of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, a subahdar-major in the British Indian army and headmaster in a military school, and his wife, ...

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Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956) by unknown photographer © reserved; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Amrit Kaur [Rajkumari Amrit Kaur] (1889–1964), politician and advocate of women's rights, was born on 2 February 1889 at Kapurthala Palace, Lucknow. She was the only daughter among the six children of Sir Harnam Singh (1851–1930), youngest son of Sir Raja Randher Singh Bahadur...

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Charles Freer Andrews (1871–1940) by Howard Coster, 1935 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Andrews, Charles Freer (1871–1940), author and campaigner for Indian independence, was born at Newcastle upon Tyne on 12 February 1871, the second son of John Edwin Andrews, minister in the Catholic Apostolic (or Irvingite) church, and his second wife, Mary Charlotte Cartwright (1840–1914)...

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Ayub Khan, Mohammad (1907–1974), president of Pakistan, was born on 14 May 1907 at Rehana, in the Hazara district of the North-West Frontier Province of undivided British India. He was the fifth child of Mir Dad Khan, a retired Indian army junior officer. The family were comfortably off, but not wealthy members of the ...

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Mohammad Ayub Khan (1907–1974) by unknown photographer © reserved