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Baynes, John (1758–1787), lawyer and political reformer, was born in April 1758 (probably on the 6th) at Middleham in Yorkshire, the son of William Baynes of Middleham, who later moved to Embsay Kirk in Craven. After attending school at Bradford under Mr Butler...

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Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) by Henry William Pickersgill, 1829 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), philosopher, jurist, and reformer, was born on 4 February 1748 in Church Lane, Houndsditch, London, the eldest of the seven children of Jeremiah Bentham (1712–1792), attorney, and Alicia Woodward Whitehorne (d. 1759), the eldest daughter of Thomas Grove, a mercer of ...

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Biggs, John (1801–1871), hosier and political reformer, was born at Leicester, first of the seven children of John Biggs (1774–1827), hosier, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Heggs (1780–1862), of Arnesby, Leicestershire. By the time his father died in 1827 the firm of John Biggs & Sons...

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See Biggs, John

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Bingham, Peregrine (bap. 1788, d. 1864), legal writer and reformer, was baptized at Radclive, Buckinghamshire, on 19 April 1788, the eldest son of the Revd Peregrine Bingham (1754–1826) and his wife, Amy, née Bowles. He was educated at Winchester College and at Magdalen College, Oxford...

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Brown, James (1815–1881), journalist and political reformer, was born in Liverpool on 2 August 1815. His father, James Brown, also known as Cato, was a black Nova Scotian, probably from the loyalist community which had settled there in consequence of the American War of Independence, and had served in the ...

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Cartwright, John (1740–1824), political reformer, was born on 17 September 1740 at Marnham, Nottinghamshire, the third son of William Cartwright (d. 1781) of Marnham, and Anne (d. 1787), daughter of George Cartwright of Ossington, also in Nottinghamshire. The family had risen to prominence in the sixteenth century owing to the fortuitous marriage of ...

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John Cartwright (1740–1824) by Adam Buck © National Portrait Gallery, London

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F. H. Brown

revised by Chandrika Kaul

Digby, William (1849–1904), journalist and social campaigner, the third son of William Digby and his wife, Ann Drake, was born on 1 May 1849 at Walsoken, Wisbech, Cambridgeshire. Mostly self-taught, Digby became an apprentice in the office of the Isle of Ely and Wisbech Advertiser...