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Cadbury, Dame Geraldine Southall (1865–1941), social and penal reformer, was born Geraldine Southall at 5 Highfield Road, Edgbaston, on 29 June 1865, the daughter of Alfred Southall (1838–1931), chemist, and his wife, Anna Strangman, née Grubb (1841–1912). She inherited a propensity for social activism from her Quaker parents; her father was a temperance worker who taught a working men's adult school class, while her Irish mother was a supporter of women's suffrage. She was educated at ...

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Eden, William, first Baron Auckland (1744–1814), penal reformer and diplomatist, was born on 3 April 1744, the third son of Sir Robert Eden, third baronet (d. 1755), landowner, of Windlestone Hall, West Auckland, co. Durham, and Mary (d. 1794), daughter of ...

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Fitzpatrick, Sir Jeremiah (c. 1740–1810), physician and campaigner for prison reform, was born in Kilbeggan, co. Westmeath. His background and early years are shrouded in obscurity, but circumstantial evidence points to the conclusion that his parents, of whom nothing is known, were Catholic and that they were comfortably off. He received a medical education abroad and though his graduating institution has not been identified ...

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Fry [née Gurney], Elizabeth (1780–1845), penal reformer and philanthropist, was born on 21 May 1780 at Magdalen Street, Norwich, the fourth of twelve children, seven daughters and five sons, of John Gurney (1749–1809), a merchant and banker, and Catherine Bell (1754–1792). Her parents were both descendants of old Quaker families, ...

Article

Thomas L. Hodgkin

revised by Mark Pottle

Fry, (Sara) Margery (1874–1958), penal reformer and college head, was born at Highgate, London, on 11 March 1874, the eighth child and sixth daughter of Sir Edward Fry (1827–1918), judge of the High Court, Chancery Division, and his wife, Mariabella Hodgkin (1833–1930). Joan Mary Fry...

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Hill, Matthew Davenport (1792–1872), penal reformer, was born on 6 August 1792 at Suffolk Street, Birmingham, the eldest of the eight children of Thomas Wright Hill (1763–1851), schoolmaster, and his wife, Sarah Lea (1765–1842). Two of his five brothers attained professional eminence: Rowland Hill (1795–1879)...

Article

G. Le G. Norgate

revised by Stephen M. Lee

Neild, James (1744–1814), penal reformer and philanthropist, was born on 24 May 1744 at Knutsford, Cheshire. His father's death left his mother to support Neild and his four siblings by continuing her business as a linen draper. After a very brief education Neild...

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Paul, Sir George Onesiphorus, second baronet (1746–1820), prison reformer and philanthropist, was born on 9 February 1746 at Woodchester, Gloucestershire, the son of Sir Onesiphorus Paul, first baronet (bap. 1706, d. 1774), a successful woollen manufacturer, and his first wife, Jane (c...

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Silverman, (Samuel) Sydney (1895–1968), politician and penal reformer, was born at 33 Elizabeth Street, Liverpool, on 8 October 1895. He was the second of four children, only two of whom survived to maturity, of Myer Silverman, general draper, and his wife, Blanche Stern...

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Tumim, Sir Stephen (1930–2003), judge and prison inspector, was born on 15 August 1930 at 10 Basing Hill, Golders Green, Hendon, Middlesex, the second son of Joseph Tumim (1895–1957), barrister, and his wife, (Edna) Renée, née Davis (1902–1941), daughter of Nathaniel Davis, architect. Both families were of Jewish descent. On the outbreak of the Second World War the ...

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Wright, Thomas (1789–1875), prison visitor, was born in Manchester, of a Scottish father and Manchester mother, on 20 September 1789. He had two sisters, one of whom died young and one outlived him. Wright was educated at a Wesleyan Sunday school and was apprenticed at the age of fifteen to the ...