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Adamson, Joy [née Friederike Viktoria Gessner] (1910–1980), conservationist and artist, was born on 20 January 1910 in Troppau, Silesia, the second of the three children of Viktor Gessner (d. 1933/4), civil servant, and his wife, Traute Greipel (1888?–1973). Her mother's family was well off, owning lands and paper factories. After her parents were divorced in 1922 she was brought up by her maternal grandmother in ...

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Ashbee, Charles Robert (1863–1942), architect, designer, and social reformer, was born on 17 May 1863 at Spring Grove, Heston, Isleworth, Middlesex, the first of the four children of Henry Spencer Ashbee (1834–1900), merchant and book collector, and his wife, Elizabeth Josephine Jenny (1841–1919)...

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Baring [née Stewart-Mackenzie], Louisa Caroline, Lady Ashburton (1827–1903), art collector and philanthropist, was born at Seaforth Lodge, Stornoway, Isle of Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides, on 5 March 1827, the third daughter and sixth child of James Alexander Stewart-Mackenzie (d. 1843)...

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Beit, Sir Otto John, first baronet (1865–1930), financier, philanthropist, and art connoisseur, was born on 7 December 1865 in Hamburg, Germany, twelve years after his brother Alfred Beit. He was the third son of Siegfried Beit (1818–1881), silk merchant, and his wife, Laura Caroline Hahn (...

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Beresford [née Stuart], Louisa Anne, marchioness of Waterford (1818–1891), watercolour painter and philanthropist, was born on 14 April 1818 at the Hôtel Charost, Faubourg St Honoré, Paris, the second daughter of Sir Charles Stuart, later Baron Stuart de Rothesay (1779–1845), diplomatist. Her paternal grandfather was ...

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Bodichon, Barbara Leigh Smith (1827–1891), artist and women's activist, was born on 8 April 1827 in Whatlington, near Robertsbridge, Sussex, the eldest of the five children of the radical MP Benjamin Smith (1783–1860) [see under Smith, William (1756-1835)] and Anne Longden (1801–1834)...

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Clayton, John (1792–1890), civic leader and antiquary, was born on 10 June 1792 at Newcastle upon Tyne, the fourth child and third son of Nathaniel Clayton (1760–1832), town clerk and solicitor, and his wife, Dorothy, née Atkinson (1764–1827), daughter of George and Bridget Atkinson...

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Dower, John Gordon (1900–1947), architect and promoter of national parks, was born at 1 Ashburn Place, Ilkley, Yorkshire on 2 September 1900, the eldest child of Robert Shillito Dower (1870–1953), company director of George Depledge, steel merchant, Leeds, and a Methodist lay preacher, and his wife, ...

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Duveen, Joseph Joel, Baron Duveen (1869–1939), art dealer and benefactor, was born at 31 Myton Gate, Hull on 14 October 1869, the eldest of the ten sons and four daughters of Sir Joseph Joel Duveen (1843–1908) and his wife, Rosetta, daughter of Abraham Barnett...

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Elmhirst [née Whitney], Dorothy Payne (1887–1968), patron of education and the arts, was born at 1731 I Street, in Washington, DC, United States of America, on 23 January 1887, the fifth and youngest child of William Collins Whitney (1841–1904), statesman and company promoter, and his first wife, ...

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Fitzwilliam, Richard, seventh Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion (1745–1816), benefactor and musical antiquary, was born on 1 August 1745 at Richmond, Surrey, the eldest son of Richard Fitzwilliam, sixth Viscount Fitzwilliam of Merrion (d. 1776), and Catherine (c.1710–1786), eldest daughter and coheir of the Dutch-born merchant and political economist ...

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Geddes, Sir Patrick (1854–1932), social evolutionist and city planner, was born at Ballater, west Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on 2 October 1854, the youngest son of Alexander Geddes (1808–1899), and his wife, Janet Stivenson. His father was a quartermaster in the Black Watch; his mother came from a family of strict Presbyterian covenanters....

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Gill, (Arthur) Eric Rowton (1882–1940), artist, craftsman, and social critic, was born at 32 Hamilton Road, Brighton, Sussex, on 22 February 1882, the eldest son and second of the thirteen children of the Revd Arthur Tidman Gill (1848–1933), minister of the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion...

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Heriot, George (1563–1624), jeweller and philanthropist, was born in Edinburgh on 15 June 1563, the eldest son of George Heriot (1539/40–1610), goldsmith and MP, of Edinburgh and his first wife, Elizabeth Balderstone. Heriot was apprenticed to his father's trade, and on 14 January 1586 he was contracted to marry ...

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Howard, Sir Ebenezer (1850–1928), founder of the garden city movement, was born at 62 Fore Street in the City of London on 29 January 1850, the third child and only son of Ebenezer Howard, confectioner, who owned several shops in and near the ...

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Jarman, (Michael) Derek Elworthy (1942–1994), film-maker, painter, and campaigner for homosexual rights, was born on 31 January 1942 at the Victoria Nursing Home, Pinner Hill, Middlesex, the elder child of Wing Commander Lancelot Elworthy Jarman (1907–1986), RAF officer, and his wife, Elizabeth Evelyn (Betts; 1918–1978)...

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Lever, William Hesketh, first Viscount Leverhulme (1851–1925), soap manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 19 September 1851, at 16 Wood Street, Bolton, seventh child and elder son of James Lever (1809–1897), wholesale and retail grocer, and his wife, Eliza, daughter of William Hesketh...

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Mellon, Paul (1907–1999), philanthropist and art collector, was born on 11 June 1907 at 5052 Forbes Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, the only son and second of the two children of Andrew William Mellon (1855–1937), banker and statesman, and his wife, Nora (1879–1973), daughter of Mr and Mrs ...

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Milne, (George) James Henry Lees- (1908–1997), architectural historian and conservationist, was born at Wickhamford Manor, Worcestershire, on 6 August 1908, the second of three children and elder son of George Crompton Lees-Milne (1880–1949) and his wife, Helen Christina (1884–1962), daughter of Henry Bailey...

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Nettlefold, John Sutton (1866–1930), housing reformer and town planner, was born in Highbury, London, on 2 May 1866, the fourth son of (Edward) John Nettlefold (1826–1878), screw manufacturer, and his wife Frances, née Whyman (1835–1907). His family were Unitarians and he was educated at ...