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Abbas Hilmi ['Abbās Ḥilmi] II (1874–1944), last khedive of Egypt, was born on 14 July 1874 in Alexandria, Egypt, the son of Muhammad Tawfiq (1852–1892), sixth ruler of Egypt under the dynasty founded in 1811 by his great-great-grandfather Mehmet Ali, and Princess Emine Hanem...

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Abdul Rahman, Tunku (1902–1990), prime minister of Malaysia, was born in Alor Setar, Kedah (a Malay state then under British ‘protection’), on 8 February 1902, the seventh son of Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, sultan of Kedah (fl. 1882–1943), and his Thai wife, ...

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Abu Bakar [Abu Bakar ibni al-Marhum Dato Temenggong Sri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim] (1833–1895), sultan of Johore, was born in Teluk Belanga, Singapore, most probably on 3 February 1833, the eldest son of Daing Ibrahim (1810–1862) and his first wife, Encik Ngah (also known as Tengku Andak)...

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Gilbert Laithwaite

revised by Francis Robinson

Aga Khan [Mohammed Shah] III (1877–1957), leader of the Ismailis, was born in Karachi on 2 November 1877, a member of the ruling Qajar dynasty in Persia, the son of Aga Ali Shah, Aga Khan II (d. 1885), and Shams al-Muluk, known as ...

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Akbar [née Hasib], Shireen Nishat (1944–1997), educationist, was born on 30 July 1944 in Calcutta, India, the daughter of F. A. Hasib and Selina Hasib, who also had two sons. Among her forebears was Begum Rokeya Hossain (1880–1932), an early worker for women's emancipation in ...

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Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1872–1953), Indian civil servant and Islamic scholar, was born on 4 April 1872 in Surat, Gujarat, India. His father, Yusuf Ali Allahbuksh, otherwise Khan Bahadur Yusuf Ali, a Shi'i in the Dawoodi Bohra tradition, had abandoned the traditional occupation of his community, business, and entered instead the police force, being presented on retirement with the title of ...

Article

S. V. FitzGerald

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Ameer Ali, Saiyid (1849–1928), judge and Muslim leader in India, was born on 6 April 1849 at Chinsura, Bengal, the fourth son of Saiyid Saadat Ali Khan (who died of cholera in 1856) of Mohan, Oudh, and his wife, the daughter of Shamsuddin Khan...

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Amin, Idi (c. 1924–2003), president of Uganda, was born about 1924 in Koboko in north-western Uganda to Muslim parents. His mother was a Kakwa; his father is said to have been Nubian, a term used of the Sudanese troops brought into Uganda by ...

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Anand, Mulk Raj (1905–2004), author, was born in the city of Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province, India, on 12 December 1905, a kshatriya (warrior) by caste. His immediate ancestors were coppersmiths and silversmiths, though his father, Lal Chand, had broken away to become a clerk in the ...

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Ayub Khan, Mohammad (1907–1974), president of Pakistan, was born on 14 May 1907 at Rehana, in the Hazara district of the North-West Frontier Province of undivided British India. He was the fifth child of Mir Dad Khan, a retired Indian army junior officer. The family were comfortably off, but not wealthy members of the ...

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Badawi, (Mohammed Aboulkhair) Zaki (1922–2006), scholar of Islam and Muslim community leader, was born on 14 January (or possibly 11 August) 1922 at Sharkia, outside Cairo, Egypt, the son of Zaki Badawi, a university lecturer. He entered al-Azhar University in Cairo, arguably the most prestigious major place of learning for ...

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Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali (1928–1979), president and later prime minister of Pakistan, was born on 5 January 1928 at Larkana, a medium-sized town on the Indus River in Sind, then part of British India. His father, Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto (1888–1957), was one of Sind's...

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Farouk [Fārūq] (1920–1965), king of Egypt, was born on 11 February 1920 at the Abdin Palace in Cairo, the official residency of the dynasty founded in 1811 by Mehmet Ali, an Albanian volunteer in the Ottoman army. He was the only son of ...

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Goff, Helen Lyndon [pseuds. P. L. Travers, Pamela Lyndon Travers] (1899–1996), children's writer, was born on 9 August 1899 in Maryborough, Queensland, Australia. She was the first of the three children of Travers Robert Goff (1863–1907), a London-born bank manager (later demoted to a clerk), and ...

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Jinnah, Mohamed Ali (1876–1948), creator of Pakistan, was born on 25 December 1876 at Wazir Mansions, Newnham Road, Karachi, the first of the seven children of Jinnahbhai Poonja (c.1857–c.1901), a successful merchant, and his wife, Mithibai (d. c...

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Kamal-ud-Din, Khwaja (1870–1932), Islamic scholar and missionary, was born in Lahore, Punjab, British India, the son of Khwaja Aziz-ud-Din. He came from a Kashmiri family with a tradition of distinguished public service: his grandfather, Abdur Rashid, was at one time the qazi (chief Muslim judge) of ...

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Karim, Abdul (1862/3–1909), Queen Victoria's Indian secretary, was the son of an Indian Muslim, Sheikh Mohammed Waziruddin of Agra, India, a hospital assistant at Rs60 a month. Records suggest he had an older brother and four sisters, a wife and one child. Having been employed as a vernacular clerk in ...

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Khan, Abdul Ghaffar (1890–1988), Pakhtun nationalist, was born in the village of Utmanzai in the Peshawar district of the North-West Frontier Province. He was the fourth child of Khan Behram Khan, an influential Muhammadzai landlord. Following admission to a mosque school at the age of five, he was educated at the ...

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Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar Ali, nawab of Pataudi (1910–1952), cricketer, was born in Pataudi in the Punjab on 16 March 1910, the elder son of Muhammad Ibrahim Ali Khan, the nawab of Pataudi (d. before 1927). The princely area of Pataudi, of which he was formally installed as ruler in December 1931, comprised some ...

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Khan, Noor-un-Nisa Inayat (1914–1944), special operations officer, was born on 2 January 1914 in Moscow, the eldest of four children of Hazrat Inayat Khan (1882–1927), a Sufi religious teacher and musician, and his wife, Ora Ray Baker (1890–1949). Her father was descended from the last Mughal ...