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Ambedkar [formerly Ambavadekar], Bhimrao Ramji (1891–1956), politician, was born at Mhow in central India on 14 April 1891, the youngest of the fourteen children of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, a subahdar-major in the British Indian army and headmaster in a military school, and his wife, ...

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Banerjea [Bandyopadhyay], Sir Surendranath (1848–1925), politician, the second child of Dr Durgacharan Banerjea, was born in Taltala, Calcutta, on 10 November 1848. Durgacharan, a disciple of David Hare, the philanthropist who helped him to get his medical education, was one of the most successful doctors in the city and a friend of the reformer ...

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Birla, Ghanshyamdas (1894–1983), businessman and politician in India, was born in the small village of Pilani in Rajputana, India, on 10 April 1894, the son of Raja Baldeodas Birla (c.1862–1957) and his wife, Yogeshwari Singhi (c.1863–1963). The Birlas were of the mercantile caste known as the ...

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Bose, Sir Jagadish Chandra [Jagadis Chunder] (1858–1937), physicist and biologist, was born in the district of Vikrampur, close to Dacca, Bengal, India, on 30 November 1858, the son of Bhagaban Chandra Bose, deputy magistrate of neighbouring Faridpur, and his wife, Bamasundari. Though a Hindu, his father was one of the early members of the Western-influenced Hindu reform movement known as Brahmoism, along with his more traditionally Hindu wife....

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Coomaraswamy, Ananda Kentish (1877–1947), art historian, was born on 22 August 1877 in Colombo, Ceylon, the only child of Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy (1834–1879), barrister, politician, and scholar of Buddhism and Hinduism, and his wife, Elizabeth Clay Beeby, the elder daughter of William John Beeby...

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Desai [née Patel], Jayaben Suryakant (1933–2010), factory worker, trade unionist, and teacher, was born in Dharmaj, Gujarat, India, on 2 April 1933, into an affluent landowning family, the only daughter and second of three children of Gordhanbhai Govindbhai Patel and his wife, ...

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Dutt, Romesh Chunder [Rameshchandra Datta] (1848–1909), administrator in India and author, son of Ishanchandra and Thakamani Dutt, was born in Calcutta on 13 August 1848. He came from one of the Calcutta families who had prospered through their commercial associations with the British ...

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Gaikwar [Gaekwar], Sayaji Rao [Sayaji Rao], maharaja of Baroda (1863–1939), social reformer, was born on 11 March 1863 at Kavlana in Nasik district of Bombay presidency, and named Gopal Rao, the second son of Kashi Rao, a village headman, who belonged to the ...

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Gandhi [née Nehru], Indira Priyadarshini (1917–1984), prime minister of India, was born on 19 November 1917 at Allahabad, United Provinces, the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), one of the principal leaders of the Indian nationalist movement and India's first prime minister, and ...

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Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [known as Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948), political leader and religious and social reformer, was born in Porbandar, Kathiawar, western India, on 2 October 1869, to Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi and his fourth wife, Putlibai: he was the youngest of the one daughter and three sons of the marriage....

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Gokhale, Gopal Krishna [Gopalrao] (1866–1915), politician and Indian nationalist, was born on 9 May 1866 in Kotluk, a village in the Ratnagiri district of the Bombay presidency, the second son of Krishnarao Shridhar Gokhale (d. 1879), a minor district official from a respected but poor ...

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Huxley, Aldous Leonard (1894–1963), writer, was born at Laleham, a house near Godalming, Surrey, on 26 July 1894, the third son of Leonard Huxley (1860–1933), an assistant master at Charterhouse School and subsequently editor of the Cornhill Magazine, and his first wife, Julia Frances Huxley (...

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Isherwood, Christopher William Bradshaw (1904–1986), writer, was born on 26 August 1904 at Wyberslegh Hall, High Lane, Cheshire, the elder son (there were no daughters) of Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Edward Bradshaw-Isherwood (1869–1915), professional soldier in the York and Lancaster regiment, of Marple, Cheshire, and his wife, ...

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Naidu [née Chattopadhyay], Sarojini (1879–1949), politician and poet, born on 13 February 1879 in Hyderabad, was the second child and eldest daughter of Aghornath Chattopadhyay (Chatterji; 1851–1915) and his wife, Baradasundari, otherwise Varada Devi. Her younger brother, Virendranath (Chatto) Chattopadhyaya...

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Nair, Sir Chettur Sankaran (1857–1934), judge and politician in India, was born on 11 July 1857 at the small village of Mankara on the Bhorata River about 16 miles west of Palghat in south Malabar, India, into the Hindu matrilineal Nair community, the son of ...

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Nehru, Jawaharlal (1889–1964), prime minister of India, was born in Allahabad on 14 November 1889, the eldest child of the lawyer and politician Motilal Nehru (1861–1931), and of his second wife, Swarup Rani. He had two younger sisters, the elder of whom was ...

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Nehru, Motilal (1861–1931), lawyer and Indian nationalist, was born at Agra on 6 May 1861, the posthumous son of Ganga Dhar Nehru, a minor police official in Delhi under the Mughal ruler until the latter was deposed by the British in 1858. Taught Arabic, Persian, and Urdu at home, ...

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Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli (1888–1975), philosopher and president of India, was born on 5 September 1888, in the pilgrimage centre village of Tiruttani, in the then undivided presidency of Madras. He was the second son of middle-class but poor parents, Sarvepalli Veeraswami, a tahsildar...

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Raman, Sir (Chandrasekhara) Venkata (1888–1970), physicist, was born at Tiruvanaikkaval, near Trichinopoly, in the province of Madras, on 7 November 1888, the second of the eight children (five sons and three daughters) of Chandrasekhara Iyer (b. 1866) and his wife, Parvati Ammal...

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Ramanujan, Srinivasa (1887–1920), mathematician, was born on 22 December 1887 in Erode, India, the third of five children (two older sisters died in infancy) of Kuppuswamy Srinivasa (b. 1863), a clerk in a silk merchant's shop, and his wife, Komalatammal (b...