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Ashton, Sir Robert (d. 1384), soldier and administrator, came from Long Ashton in Somerset, and was the son of another Robert Ashton. The younger Robert's date of birth is uncertain, but he was already a knight in 1361. He accompanied Lionel, duke of Clarence...

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Beaufort, Thomas, duke of Exeter (1377?–1426), magnate and soldier, was the youngest of the three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. His brothers were John Beaufort and Henry Beaufort...

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Bingham, Sir Richard (1527/8–1599), soldier and president of Connacht, was the third son of Robert Bingham of Melcombe-Bingham, Dorset, and his wife, Alice, daughter of Thomas Coker of Mappowder in the same county. His elder brothers were Robert and Christopher; he also had two sisters and five younger brothers, ...

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Sir Richard Bingham (1527/88–1599) by unknown artist, 1564 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Carew, Sir John (d. 1362), soldier and justiciar of Ireland, was a son of the second marriage of Sir John Carew (d. 1324), who held Carew in Pembrokeshire, Moulsford in Berkshire, lands in Devon and Hampshire, and Idrone, Carlow, and other Irish properties which the family had acquired in the late twelfth century by grants made to ...

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Clifford, Sir Conyers (d. 1599), soldier and president of Connacht, was the eldest son of George Clifford of Bobbing Court in Kent and his wife, Ursula, daughter of Roger Finch. William, Richard, Thomas, and Conyers Clifford went to Ireland as a family group in the 1570s (the precise relationship between them is unknown), and settled in ...

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Grey, Arthur, fourteenth Baron Grey of Wilton (1536–1593), lord deputy of Ireland and soldier, was born between 1 January and 13 October 1536 at Hammes Castle in the Pas-de-Calais, the elder son of the three children of William Grey, thirteenth Baron Grey of Wilton...

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Malby, Sir Nicholas (c. 1530–1584), soldier and president of Connacht, was probably born in the West Riding of Yorkshire. His father died when Nicholas was four years old, and the boy was evidently reared, along with his brother John, in the family of a ...

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Meiler fitz Henry (d. 1220), soldier and justiciar of Ireland, was the son of Henry, illegitimate son of Henry I and Nest, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of Deheubarth (south Wales), who also had children with Gerald, constable of Windsor...

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Randolph, Thomas, first earl of Moray (d. 1332), soldier and guardian of Scotland, was the son of Sir Thomas Randolph of Stichill, Roxburghshire, and of a daughter of Marjory, countess of Carrick, and her first husband, Adam of Kilconquhar. Thomas's mother was half-sister to ...

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Scrope, Richard, first Baron Scrope of Bolton (c. 1327–1403), soldier and administrator, was the third son of Sir Henry Scrope (b. in or before 1268, d. 1336), a lawyer who acquired a considerable estate in north Yorkshire, and his wife, Margaret, who was probably the daughter of either ...

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Talbot, John, first earl of Shrewsbury and first earl of Waterford (c. 1387–1453), soldier, was the second son of Richard Talbot, fourth Baron Talbot, of Goodrich, Herefordshire, and of Ankaret, sole heir of Richard, Baron Lestrange of Blakemere, near Whitchurch, Shropshire. His father died in 1397, when he was about ten years old. Four years later his mother married ...