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Billings, Joseph (1758–1806), explorer and hydrographer in Russia, was born in 1758 at Turnham Green, Middlesex, according to ship musters; parish church registers confirm the birth of Joseph, son of Thomas and Mary Billing, on 6 September 1758. Billings's signed Russian service record, however, gives 1761 as the year of his birth. Other sources indicate that ...

Article

Borough, Stephen (1525–1584), explorer and naval administrator, was born on 25 September 1525 at Borough House, Northam Burrows, Northam, Devon, the elder son of Walter Borough (1494–1548) and Mary Dough; his younger brother was William Borough (d. 1598).

With his uncle, John Borough (d. 1570)...

Article

J. K. Laughton

revised by Andrew Lambert

Collinson, Sir Richard (1811–1883), naval officer and explorer, was born on 7 November 1811 at Gateshead, co. Durham, where his father, the Revd John Collinson (c.1791–1857), was rector. His mother was Amelia, née King (b. 1783), daughter of the philanthropist ...

Article

Croft, (Noel) Andrew Cotton (1906–1998), army officer and Arctic explorer, was born on 30 November 1906 at Abbey Cottage, Essex Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, the only son and fourth child of the Revd Robert William Croft, curate of Stevenage, and his wife, Lottie Alice Bland Clayton...

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Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier (1796–1848) by unknown photographer, 1845 © National Maritime Museum, London

Article

Crozier, Francis Rawdon Moira (1796–1848), naval officer and polar explorer, was born on 17 September 1796 at Banbridge, co. Down, Ireland, the son of George Crozier (d. 1831), lawyer. He was the fifth son in the family and had at least two sisters. It seems probable that he was related to ...

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Sir John Franklin (1786–1847) by Baird, 1845 © National Maritime Museum, London

Article

Franklin, Sir John (1786–1847), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born on 16 April 1786 in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, the ninth of the twelve children of Willingham Franklin (d. 1824), a mercer, and his wife, Hannah Weekes. He had four brothers and seven sisters, and was educated at a preparatory school in ...

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George Francis Lyon (1795–1832) by John Jackson Christie's Images Ltd. (2004)

Article

Lyon, George Francis [alias Said-ben-Abdallah] (1795–1832), naval officer and explorer, son of a colonel in the army, was born at Chichester, Sussex. Around 1805 he was educated at Dr Burney's naval academy, Gosport, Hampshire, and entered the navy in 1808, had the commission of lieutenant confirmed in 1814, and saw much action....

Article

R. N. Rudmose Brown

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Markham, Sir Albert Hastings (1841–1918), naval officer and Arctic explorer, was born at Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Hautes Pyrénées, France, on 11 November 1841, the fourth son of Captain John Markham RN (b. 1797) and his wife, Marianne, daughter of John Brock Wood. Clements Robert Markham (1830–1916)...

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Sir Albert Hastings Markham (1841–1918) by unknown photographer, pubd 1913 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

McClintock, Sir (Francis) Leopold (1819–1907), naval officer and Arctic explorer, born at Dundalk, co. Louth, on 8 July 1819, was the eldest son of Henry McClintock, formerly of the 3rd dragoon guards, customs collector of Dundalk, and his wife, Elizabeth Melesina, daughter of the ...

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Sir (Francis) Leopold McClintock (1819–1907) by Stephen Pearce, 1859 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

J. K. Laughton

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

McCormick, Robert (1800–1890), naval surgeon, explorer, and naturalist, born at Runham, near Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, on 22 July 1800, was the only son of Robert McCormick (d. 1817), surgeon in the navy, son of Robert McCormick of Ballyreagh, co. Tyrone, where the family had been settled for several generations. He spent his childhood near ...

Article

Parry, Sir (William) Edward (1790–1855), naval officer and Arctic explorer, fourth son of Caleb Hillier Parry (1755–1822), physician, and Sarah, née Rigby (1749–1831), was born at Bath on 19 December 1790. After briefly attending Bath grammar school, he entered the navy in 1803 on board the ...

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Sir (William) Edward Parry (1790–1855) by Samuel Drummond, in or before 1820 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Ross, Sir James Clark (1800–1862), polar explorer and naval officer, was born on 15 April 1800, possibly in Scotland, the third son of George Ross, a London businessman from an eminent family from Balsarroch, Wigtownshire, and Christian Clark. He was the nephew of ...

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Sir James Clark Ross (1800–1862) by John R. Wildman, 1833–4 © National Maritime Museum, London

Article

Ross, Sir John (1777–1856), naval officer and Arctic explorer, born on 24 June 1777 at the manse, Soulseat Loch, Inch, near Stranraer, Scotland, was the fourth of five sons of Andrew Ross (1726–1787) of Balsarroch, Wigtownshire, and minister of Inch, and his first wife, ...