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Anderson, William (c. 1748–1778), surgeon and naturalist, was born in Scotland, probably in the area of North Berwick, Haddingtonshire. Nothing is known of his immediate family other than the existence of two sisters, Beth and Rabinah. He was educated at Edinburgh University, enrolling as an anatomy student for the year 1762–3. At his examination for the navy on 1 December 1768 he qualified as surgeon's first mate and on 1 November 1770 he was advanced to surgeon of a first-rate ship, subsequently serving in the ...


G. T. Bettany

revised by Richard Drayton

Arnold, Joseph (1782–1818), naturalist and surgeon, was born on 28 December 1782 at Beccles, Suffolk, the fourth son of Edward Arnold, a tanner, and his wife, Hannah. He was apprenticed there to Dr Willing Crowfoot, surgeon and apothecary, and attended Edinburgh University from 1803, graduating MD in 1807. His interest in natural history led to communications to the ...


G. S. Boulger

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Sinclair, Andrew (1794–1861), surgeon and naturalist, was born in Paisley, Renfrewshire, on 13 April 1794, the son of John Sinclair and Agnes Renfrew. Between 1814 and 1818 he studied medicine and surgery at the University of Glasgow, at L'hôpital de la Charité in ...