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Anderson, William (c. 1748–1778), surgeon and naturalist, was born in Scotland, probably in the area of North Berwick, Haddingtonshire. Nothing is known of his immediate family other than the existence of two sisters, Beth and Rabinah. He was educated at Edinburgh University, enrolling as an anatomy student for the year 1762–3. At his examination for the navy on 1 December 1768 he qualified as surgeon's first mate and on 1 November 1770 he was advanced to surgeon of a first-rate ship, subsequently serving in the ...

Article

G. T. Bettany

revised by Richard Drayton

Arnold, Joseph (1782–1818), naturalist and surgeon, was born on 28 December 1782 at Beccles, Suffolk, the fourth son of Edward Arnold, a tanner, and his wife, Hannah. He was apprenticed there to Dr Willing Crowfoot, surgeon and apothecary, and attended Edinburgh University from 1803, graduating MD in 1807. His interest in natural history led to communications to the ...

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Bigsby, John Jeremiah (1792–1881), surgeon and geologist, was born on 4 August 1792 in Nottingham, the son of Dr Jacob Bigsby and his wife, Mary. Like his father, he pursued a career in medicine. He was first sent to school at St Andrews...

Article

Blair, Patrick (c. 1680–1728), botanist and surgeon, was born at Lethendy, Perthshire, the third son of George Blair (d. 1682), a farmer, and his wife, Euphame. Little is known of his early life, and his date of birth is not certain. He was apprenticed to a surgeon-apothecary from the late 1680s, possibly in ...

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Brooke, Charles (1804–1879), surgeon and inventor of measuring instruments, only son of the mineralogist and businessman Henry James Brooke (1771–1857), was born on 30 June 1804, in South Lambeth, Surrey. Following an early education in Chiswick he entered Rugby School in 1819 and ...

Article

Burnett, Gilbert Thomas (1800–1835), surgeon and botanist, was born in London on 15 April 1800, one of three children of Gilbert Burnett, surgeon, and his wife, Ann. He was reputedly a descendant of Bishop Gilbert Burnet (1643–1715). Educated by Joseph Benson (1778?–1861) at ...

Article

B. D. Jackson

revised by Patrick Wallis

Castle, Thomas (1805/6–1837), surgeon and botanist, was born in Kent, the youngest son of Slodden Castle, of Sandwich, Kent. After leaving school he became an apprentice of John Gill, a surgeon at Hythe; in his third year he began his first book, which he finished before going to ...

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Daniell, William Freeman (1817–1865), surgeon and botanist, was born at Salford on 16 November 1817, one of three sons of George and Mary Daniell. Nothing is known of his early life or education; he became MRCS on 5 November 1841, at which time he gave a ...

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John Dawson (bap. 1735, d. 1820) by William Whiston Barney, pubd 1809 (after Joseph Allen) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Dawson, John (bap. 1735, d. 1820), mathematician and surgeon, was born at Raygill Farm in Garsdale, near Sedbergh in Yorkshire, the younger of the two sons of William Dawson and his wife, Mary, and was baptized on 25 February 1735. Accounts of his life have tended to stress the extreme poverty of his background. But ...

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Sir Goldsworthy Gurney (1793–1875) by William Sharp, pubd 1829 (after Stephen Catterson Smith) © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

G. B. Smith

revised by Anita McConnell

Gurney, Sir Goldsworthy (1793–1875), surgeon and engineer, was born on 14 February 1793 at Treator, near Padstow, in Cornwall, the fourth son in the family of five sons and a daughter of John Gurney and his wife, Isabell, née Carter. He was named after his godmother, a daughter of ...

Article

Jeffreys, Julius (1800–1877), surgeon and inventor of the respirator, was born on 14 September 1800 at Hall Place, Bexley, Kent, the fourth son and tenth child of the sixteen born to Richard Jeffreys (1762–1830), rector of Throcking, Hertfordshire, from 1786 to 1830, and of ...

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John MacCulloch (1773–1835) by Benjamin Rawlinson Faulkner © Royal Society

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MacCulloch, John (1773–1835), surgeon and geologist, was born on 6 October 1773 at his grandparents' home on Guernsey. He was the third of eight children born to James MacCulloch (1746–1832), wine merchant of Roscoff, and his wife, Elizabeth de Lisle, daughter of Thomas de Lisle...

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Mantell, Gideon Algernon (1790–1852), surgeon and geologist, was born on 3 February 1790 at his family's home in St Mary's Lane, Lewes, Sussex, a middle child among the eight of Thomas Mantell (1750–1807), a shoemaker, and his wife, Sarah Austen (1755–1828), originally from ...

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Gideon Algernon Mantell (1790–1852) by John James Masquerier, 1837 © The Royal Society

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Parkinson, James (1755–1824), surgeon and palaeontologist, was born on 11 April 1755 at 1 Hoxton Square, Shoreditch, London, one of the three children of John Parkinson (c.1725–1784), surgeon, and his wife, Mary. He was apprenticed to his father and about 1776 trained at the ...

Article

Pryce, William (bap. 1735, d. 1790), surgeon, mineralogist, and antiquary, was born at Redruth, Cornwall, and baptized there on 14 June 1735. He was the only son (there was also a daughter, who died in infancy) of surgeon Samuel Pryce (d. 1741)...

Article

See Quekett, John Thomas