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Francesco Algarotti, Count Algarotti in the Prussian nobility (1712–1764) by Jean-Étienne Liotard, c. 1745 Rijksprentenkabinet, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

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Algarotti, Francesco, Count Algarotti in the Prussian nobility (1712–1764), poet and scholar, was born on 11 December 1712 in the family home in Venice on the Fondamenta Nuove, the second son of Rocco Algarotti (d. 1726) and his wife, Maria Mercati. His father was a prosperous merchant of Paduan origin, settled in ...

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Ammonius, Andreas [Andrea della Rena] (bap. 1476, d. 1517), humanist scholar and poet, was the son of Elisabetta Vanni and her husband, Francesco della Rena (dell' Arena). Of a family long established as silk weavers at Lucca, he was baptized in the cathedral there on 13 October 1476. In preparation for an ecclesiastical career, he studied with ...

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Beard, Charles (1827–1888), Unitarian minister, scholar, and journal editor, was born at Higher Broughton, Manchester, on 27 July 1827, the eldest son of John Relly Beard (1800–1876), Unitarian minister at Salford, and his wife, Mary Barnes (1802–1887). Educated at his father's school, he studied at ...

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Brown, James Duff (1862–1914), librarian and compiler of music reference books, was born on 6 November 1862 at 3 Reid Terrace, Stockbridge, Edinburgh, the second of seven children of James Brown of St Fergus, Aberdeenshire, a bookkeeper, and his wife, Margaret Douglas of ...

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T. F. Henderson

revised by K. D. Reynolds

Busk, Hans, the elder (1772–1862), scholar and poet, was born on 28 May 1772, the youngest son of Sir Wadsworth Busk (1730–1811), attorney-general of the Isle of Man and treasurer of the Middle Temple, and Alice (d. 1776), daughter and coheir of ...

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Cheriton, Odo of (1180s–1246), author and scholar, was born in Kent in the 1180s, into a wealthy Anglo-Norman family originally settled at Cheriton near Folkestone by a founding Odo, recorded as being kin to the then archbishop of Canterbury. His father, William of Cheriton...

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Chisholm, Hugh (1866–1924), journalist and editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, was born at 21 Harewood Square, London, on 22 February 1866. His father, Henry Williams Chisholm (1809–1901), became a senior civil servant, chief clerk of the exchequer, and author of The Great Account of Annual Public Income and Expenditure from 1688 to 1869...

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Clark, Andrew (1856–1922), Church of England clergyman, scholar, and diarist, was born on 5 June 1856 at Dollarfield, Clackmannanshire, the fifth son of Robert Clark, a farm worker, and his wife, Eliza Bowie. He was educated at Dollar Academy and from 1871 to 1875 at the ...

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Evans, Evan [pseud. Ieuan Fardd; called Ieuan Brydydd Hir] (1731–1788), scholar and poet, was born on 20 May 1731 at Cynhawdref farm in the parish of Lledrod, Cardiganshire. The son of Jenkin Evans (d. c.1758), a farmer, and his wife, ...

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Gilbert, Richard (c. 1794–1852), printer and editor of reference works, was born in St John's Square, Clerkenwell, London, the second son of Robert Gilbert, printer. His mother's name is not known. He had at least one sister, whose name is unknown. He began his working life as an accountant for the ...

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Sir John Alexander Hammerton (1871–1949) by Howard Coster, 1945 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hammerton, Sir John Alexander (1871–1949), author and editor of reference works, was born in Alexandria, Dunbartonshire, on 27 February 1871, the second in a family of two sons and one daughter of James Hammerton (1832/3–1874/5), clog maker of Oldham, and his second wife, ...

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Haydn, Joseph Timothy (1788/1793–1856), newspaper editor and compiler of reference works, was born in Lisbon on 24 November 1788 or 1793, the son of Thomas Haydn, an expatriate protestant Irishman. In 1809 he fled Napoleon's invading army in a 'once-Danish frigate' sailing to ...

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James, Montague Rhodes (1862–1936), college head, scholar, and author, was born at Goodnestone in Kent on 1 August 1862, the fourth and youngest child of Herbert James (1822–1909) and his wife of fifteen years, Mary Emily Horton (1818–1898). When Monty (as he was familiarly known) was three years old his father, a high-minded country parson, became rector of ...

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Montague Rhodes James (1862–1936) by Sir Gerald Kelly, 1936 © reserved; collection Eton College; © reserved in the photograph

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Johnston, John (c. 1565–1611), scholar and poet, was born in Aberdeen, the son of Robert Johnston, merchant, and Isobell Boyes (d. 1616). He was educated at Aberdeen grammar school and King's College, and matriculated at the University of Rostock in August 1584, probably aged about nineteen....

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Thomas Gwynn Jones (1871–1949) by unknown photographer, 1936 private collection

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Jones, Thomas Gwynn (1871–1949), poet and scholar, was born on 10 October 1871 at Gwyndy-uchaf, Betws-yn-Rhos, Denbighshire, the eldest of the four children of Isaac Jones (1842–1929), farmer, poet, and lay preacher, and his wife, Jane, née Roberts (1845–1896). At birth he was given the name ...

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J. A. W. Bennett

revised by Emma Plaskitt

Lewis, Clive Staples (1898–1963), writer and scholar, was born in Belfast on 29 November 1898, the younger son of Albert James Lewis, a local solicitor, and his wife, Florence Augusta Flora, daughter of the Revd Thomas Hamilton. She had been a graduate of ...