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Ashburne, John (bap. 1607, d. 1661), Church of England clergyman and madhouse keeper, was the son of Robert Ashburne of Crowle, Lincolnshire, where he was baptized on 19 July 1607. Ashburne matriculated sizar at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1625; he graduated BA and was ordained deacon at ...

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Bakewell, Thomas (1761–1835), mad-doctor and poet, was born on 1 June 1761 at Kingstone, near Uttoxeter, in Staffordshire. He was raised by his maternal grandfather, John Chadwick, who kept a private mad-house at Grindon in the Peak District. Chadwick moved to Ashbourne in ...

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Clouston, Sir Thomas Smith (1840–1915), asylum physician, was born on 22 April 1840 at Nisthouse, Orkney, the youngest of the four sons of Robert Clouston, an Orkney laird, and Janet Smith of Stromness. He was educated at West End Academy in Aberdeen, studied medicine at ...

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Cox, Joseph Mason (1763–1818), physician and asylum keeper, was born on 31 August 1763 at Bristol, the son of John Cox (d. 1788), a grocer, and Elizabeth Mason. His maternal grandfather, Joseph Mason, was the proprietor of a madhouse at Fishponds, near ...

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John Langdon Haydon Langdon- Down (1828–1896) by Sydney Hodges reproduced by permission of the Langdon Down Museum of Learning Disability (www.langdondownmuseum.org.uk)

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Down, John Langdon Haydon Langdon- (1828–1896), physician and expert in mental science, was born in Torpoint, Cornwall, on 18 November 1828, the youngest of seven children (three daughters and four sons) of Joseph Almond Down (d. 1853), apothecary, and his wife, Hanna Haydon...

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Ellis, Sir William Charles (1780–1839), physician and asylum superintendent, was born on 10 March 1780 at Alford, Lincolnshire, the son of William Ellis, rector of All Hallows Staining in the City of London, and his wife, Sarah Francis Ellis. He received a classical education before being apprenticed to a surgeon–apothecary in ...

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George Gibson (1885–1953) by Bassano © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gibson, George (1885–1953), trade unionist and mental health worker, was born at 98 Cumberland Street, Glasgow, on 3 April 1885, the third son and seventh of the eleven children of Johnston Robertson Gibson (b. 1847), outdoor labourer, oil merchant, and tobacconist, and his wife, ...

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Mitchell, Sir Arthur (1826–1909), commissioner in lunacy for Scotland and antiquary, born at Elgin, Moray, on 19 January 1826, was the son of George Mitchell, CE, and his wife, Elizabeth Cant. He was educated at Elgin Academy and graduated MA at Aberdeen University...

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Monro, Henry (1817–1891), physician specializing in the treatment of the insane, born in London on 10 January 1817, was the second son of the physician Edward Thomas Monro (1790–1856) and Sarah Cox Monro, and grandson of Thomas Monro. Two of his three brothers became clerics: the eldest, ...

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Monro, James (1680–1752), physician and specialist in insanity, was born in Scotland on 2 September 1680, the son of Alexander Monro DD (d. 1698), the Jacobite principal of Edinburgh University, and his wife, Anna Logan (d. 1674). His family moved to London...

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Monro, John (1715–1791), physician and specialist in insanity, was born on 16 November 1715 at Greenwich, Kent, the eldest son of James Monro (1680–1752), later physician to the Bethlem Hospital, and his wife, Elizabeth. His family were of Scottish extraction, descended from a branch of the house of ...

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Perfect, William (1731/2–1809), physician specializing in the treatment of the insane, was the son of the Revd William Perfect (d. 1757), from 1745 vicar of East Malling, Kent, and his wife, Sarah (d. 1769). He was probably born in Oxfordshire. In 1749 he was apprenticed to ...

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Skae, David (1814–1873), physician and asylum superintendent, was born in Edinburgh on 5 July 1814, one of the two sons of David Skae, builder and architect, and his wife, Helen Lothian. As both Skae's parents died while he was a child, he moved to ...

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Tuke, Samuel (1784–1857), asylum reformer and philanthropist, was born on 31 July 1784 at York, the second of the six children of Henry Tuke (1755–1814), tea dealer and Quaker writer, and Mary Maria Scott (1748–1815). In 1810 he married Priscilla Hack (1784–1827), daughter of ...