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Aspinwall, William (d. in or after 1662), merchant and separatist leader in America, possibly came from the north-west of England. Nothing is definitely known of his birth or early life, though his later activities give evidence of his having been well educated. His work in ...

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Patrick Bell (1799–1869) by unknown engraver, pubd 1868 (after E. Strachan) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bell, Patrick (1799–1869), Church of Scotland minister and inventor of agricultural machinery, was born in April 1799 at mid-Leoch, in the parish of Auchterhouse, a few miles north-west of Dundee. He was one of at least two sons of George Bell, a tenant farmer at ...

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Blackadder, Adam (b. 1659, d. in or after 1696), merchant and writer on covenanting, was probably born in the parish of Troqueer, near Dumfries, the second son of John Blackadder (1615/1623?–1686), the minister there, and his wife, Janet Haining (d. 1688). Among his brothers were ...

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Boddington, George (1646–1719), merchant and Independent lay leader, was born on 15 October 1646, the first surviving son of George Boddington (1611–1671), packer, of St Margaret, Lothbury, London, and Hannah, daughter of Thomas Adams, of Philpot Lane, St Clement, Eastcheap, London. He was educated at various schools in ...

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Boyd, Sir John McFarlane (1917–1989), trade unionist and Salvationist, was born on 8 October 1917 in Motherwell, Lanarkshire, the only child of James Boyd, butcher, who died in the influenza epidemic of the following year, and his wife, Mary Marshall, who in 1920 married ...

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Canynges, William (1402–1474), merchant and ecclesiastical benefactor, was one of the younger of seven children of John Canynges, clothier and merchant of Bristol, and his wife, Joan Wotton. He was born into a notably successful Bristol family. William Canynges (d. 1396) was a wealthy clothier who was five times mayor of ...

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W. E. A. Axon

revised by Sarah Couper

Castillo, John (1792–1845), stonemason, poet, and preacher, was born at Rathfarnham, near Dublin. When he was two or three years old his parents, who were Roman Catholics, emigrated to England, and on the voyage were shipwrecked off the Isle of Man. They settled in the hamlet of ...

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Cookworthy, William (1705–1780), porcelain manufacturer and Quaker minister, was born on 12 April 1705, the eldest child of William Cookworthy (1670–1718), a Quaker serge maker of Kingsbridge, Devon, and his wife, Edith (d. 1759), daughter of John and Mary Debell of St Martin by Looe, Cornwall...

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Cooper, William (bap. 1639, d. 1689), bookseller and writer on the occult sciences, was born in Leicester, the son of John Cooper and his wife, Elizabeth. He was baptized on 5 June 1639 at the parish church of St Martin in Leicester. Following his father's death, ...

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See Culverwell family

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Dermot [later MacDermot], Anthony (c. 1708–1784), merchant and Roman Catholic activist, was born probably in the parish of St Michan, Dublin, the son of Christopher Dermot (d. 1727), merchant, and his wife, Mary. No information has been discovered with regard to his education. He married ...

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Diallo, Ayuba Suleiman [Job Ben Solomon] (c. 1701–1773), Muslim cleric and slave, was born about 1701 in Bundu, west Africa, the son of Suleiman Diallo, otherwise Solomon or Soliman Dgiallo, a prominent Fulbe political and Islamic leader. He spoke several African languages, and Arabic, which he could also read and write, and by the late 1720s had married two wives and had several children. In 1730, with his interpreter ...

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Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (c. 1701–1773) by William Hoare, 1733 © Christies Images / Bridgeman Images

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Elam, Gervase (1681–1771), merchant and Quaker minister, was born on 3 October 1681 at Heath, Skircoates Moor, Halifax, the only child of John Elam (1639/40–1730), a card-maker, and his second wife, Katherine (d. 1682) of Kendal, daughter of Gervase Benson of Borratt, Sedbergh...

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Ezekiel, Solomon (1781–1867), tinsmith and writer on Jewish matters, was born at Newton Abbot, Devon, on 7 June 1781, probably the grandson of Abraham Ezekiel (d. 1799), a silversmith who had come from the Rhineland about 1745 and settled in Exeter, where he had founded a synagogue in 1763–4. ...

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Ferrar, Nicholas (1593–1637), religious writer and administrator, was born in the city of London on 22 February 1593 and was baptized on 28 February at St Mary's, Stayning Lane. He was the fifth of six surviving children of Nicholas Ferrar (1544/5–1620), a successful merchant adventurer and master of the ...

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Furly, Benjamin (1636–1714), merchant and religious writer, was born on 13 April 1636 at Colchester, Essex, the fifth son of a linen draper, John Furly (c.1590–1673), later alderman and mayor of Colchester, and his wife, Ann. He was admitted to Colchester School...

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Godric of Finchale [St Godric of Finchale] (c. 1070–1170), trader and hermit, was born at Walpole in Norfolk to a poor, Anglo-Saxon, farming couple. His father's name was Æilward, his mother's Aedwen (Eadwenna), and he was subsequently joined by a brother, William, and a sister, ...

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Gurney, John (1688/9–1741), Quaker minister and wool stapler, was the son of John Gurney (1655–1721), a Quaker merchant of Norwich, who had been imprisoned from 1683 to 1685 for refusing the oath of allegiance and who brought up his family strictly in his own faith. With his wife, ...