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Bannerman, Patrick (1715–1798), Church of Scotland minister and writer on religious and civil liberties, was born at Inveravon, the son of James Bannerman (1670–1758), minister of Inveravon and then of Forglen, Banffshire, and his wife, Ann Cunningham (d. 1758), a minister's daughter. Educated at ...

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Barnett, Samuel Augustus (1844–1913), Church of England clergyman and social reformer, the elder son of Francis Augustus Barnett (d. 27 Dec 1883) and his wife, Mary Gilmore (d. 6 Nov 1880) of Bristol, was born at 5 Portland Square, Bristol, on 8 February 1844. His father was a wealthy manufacturer of iron bedsteads; his mother came from a long-established ...

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Bedi, Sir Khem Singh [Khem Singh Bedi Baba] (1832–1905), religious leader and social reformer, was born on 21 February 1832 in the village of Kallar, the Punjab, India, the second son of Baba Atar Singh Bedi (d. 1839), holy man and landowner. The family was descended from ...

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Blackley, William Lewery (1830–1902), Church of England clergyman and social reformer, was born at Dundalk, Ireland, on 30 December 1830. He was the second son of Travers Robert Blackley of Dublin and Bohogh, co. Roscommon, and Eliza, daughter of Colonel Lewery, who was taken prisoner by the French at ...

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William Lewery Blackley (1830–1902) by unknown photographer, pubd 1891 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bray, Charles (1811–1884), freethinker and social reformer, was born in Coventry on 31 January 1811, the son of a wealthy ribbon manufacturer. Ill as a child, Bray was sent out of the city at an early age and attended a boarding-school from the age of nine to fourteen, after which he went to a school at ...

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Bull, George Stringer (1799–1865), Church of England clergyman and social reformer, was born on 12 July 1799 at Stanway, Essex, the sixth child and sixth son of eight sons and two daughters of the Revd John Bull (1767–1834), curate of Stanway, and his wife, ...

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Thomas Chalmers (1780–1847) by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847), Church of Scotland minister and social reformer, was born on 17 March 1780 in Anstruther, Fife, the sixth of fourteen children of John Chalmers (1740–1818), merchant and provost of Anstruther, and Elizabeth (1750–1827), daughter of George Hall, wine merchant of ...

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Collins, (Lewis) John (1905–1982), Church of England clergyman and social reformer, was born on 23 March 1905 at Hawkhurst, Kent, the youngest of the four children (two daughters and two sons) of Arthur Collins, master builder, and his wife, Hannah Priscilla Edwards. He was brought up in a conservative, churchgoing home and at the age of six he felt called to the church's ordained ministry. This was reinforced during his time at ...

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Crosskey, Henry William (1826–1893), Unitarian minister, social reformer, and geologist, was born in Lewes, Sussex, on 7 December 1826, the eldest of four sons and one daughter of William Crosskey, a prominent Unitarian draper in Lewes, and his second wife, Elizabeth (née...

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Dolling, Robert William Radclyffe (1851–1902), Church of England clergyman and social reformer, was born on 10 February 1851 in the old rectory, Magheralin, co. Down, the sixth of nine children and the elder son of Robert Holbeach Dolling (d. 1878), a landlord in ...

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Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand [known as Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948), political leader and religious and social reformer, was born in Porbandar, Kathiawar, western India, on 2 October 1869, to Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi and his fourth wife, Putlibai: he was the youngest of the one daughter and three sons of the marriage....

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi [Mahatma Gandhi] (1869–1948) by Margaret Bourke-White, 1946 Köln, Museum Ludwig / Rheinisches Bildarchiv Köln

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Grenfell, Sir Wilfred Thomason (1865–1940), medical missionary and social reformer, was born at Parkgate, Cheshire, on 28 February 1865, the second of the four sons of the Revd Algernon Sidney Grenfell (1836–1887), headmaster and proprietor of Mostyn House School, Parkgate, and later chaplain of the ...

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Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (1865–1940) by Walter Stoneman, 1928 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Holland, Henry Scott (1847–1918), theologian and social reformer, was born on 27 January 1847 at Underdown, Ledbury, Herefordshire, the second of the six children of George Henry Holland and his wife, the Hon. Charlotte Dorothea Gifford, eldest daughter of Robert Gifford, first Baron Gifford of St Leonards...

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Henry Scott Holland (1847–1918) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Humphreys, David (bap. 1843, d. 1930), Roman Catholic priest and campaigner for social rights, a native of Boher Murroe, co. Limerick, was baptized at Murroe parish church on 18 June 1843, the son of William Humphreys, tenant farmer, and his wife, Bridget Enright...

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Keeble, Samuel Edward (1853–1946), Wesleyan Methodist minister and social reformer, was born at 1 Regent Terrace, City Road, London, on 20 July 1853, son of Robert Keeble, brazier and coppersmith, and his wife, Harriet, née Hunt. One of nine children, he was educated at ...