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Thompson Cooper

revised by Rosemary Mitchell

Acton, Charles Januarius Edward (1803–1847), cardinal, was born at Naples on 6 March 1803, the second son of Sir John Francis Edward Acton, sixth baronet (1736–1811), of Aldenham Hall, near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. Sir John was commander-in-chief of the land and sea forces of the kingdom of ...

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Allen, William (1532–1594), cardinal, was born at Rossall Grange in the parish of Poulton-le-Fylde in Lancashire, the third of four sons of John Allen (d. c.1566) and Jane, the daughter of Thomas Lister of Westbury, Yorkshire; there were three younger sisters. The family were minor gentry, leasing ...

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Bainbridge, Christopher (1462/3–1514), ambassador, archbishop of York, and cardinal, was born at Hilton, near Appleby, Westmorland, the eldest of six children of Reginald Bainbridge and Isobel Langton; he owed much in his education and early advancement to his maternal uncle Thomas Langton, bishop of ...

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Beaton [Betoun], David (1494?–1546), cardinal and archbishop of St Andrews, was a younger son of John Beaton (d. 1532), of Balfour, Fife, and Elizabeth Monypenny (d. 1541), daughter of the laird of Pitmilly, Fife.

Beaton entered St Andrews University in 1508, transferred to that of ...

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Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

Article

Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Bégin, Louis-Nazaire (1840–1925), cardinal and archbishop of Quebec, born at La Pointe-Lévis in French Canada on 10 January 1840, was the son of Charles Bégin, farmer, and his wife, Luce Paradis. His parents came of farming stock of French descent. He began his education at the ...

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Boso (d. 1178?), papal official and cardinal, was by the sixteenth century thought to be an Englishman, but was more probably a Tuscan by birth, from Lucca or Pisa, and may have been a canon of Bologna. The only argument in favour of the tradition that he was related to ...

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Bourchier, Thomas (c. 1411–1486), cardinal and archbishop of Canterbury, was probably the second son of William Bourchier, count of Eu (c. 1374–1420), and Anne of Woodstock, daughter and heir of Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, and granddaughter of Edward III. His mother's second marriage, to ...

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Castellesi [da Castello, da Corneto], Adriano (c. 1461–1521), cardinal and English agent in Rome, was born in Corneto (now Tarquinia) to 'a modest and almost servile family' (Paschini, 88). Castellesi began a career in the papal bureaucracy, and in 1488 was sent by ...

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Conway, William John (1913–1977), cardinal, was born on 22 January 1913 at 108 Dover Street, Belfast, the eldest of the nine children of William Conway (1880–1955), owner of a paint shop, and his wife, Anne Donnelly (1890–1982), daughter of William Donnelly of Carlingford, co. Louth...

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Courson, Robert de (d. 1219), cardinal, may have been a member of the Anglo-Norman family which came from Notre-Dame-de-Courson and which in 1086 held land of Ferrers in Berkshire. The evidence for connecting him with the Derbyshire Curzons (and for his birth at ...

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Daly, Cahal Brendan (1917–2009), Roman Catholic archbishop of Armagh and cardinal, was born in Loughguile, co. Antrim, on 1 October 1917, the third son and third of the seven children of Charles Daly (1879–1939), schoolteacher, and his wife, Susan, née Connolly (1888–1974). He was originally named ...

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Cahal Brendan Daly (1917–2009) by unknown photographer, c.1996 © reserved; image courtesy of Jim Havel, Havel's House of History

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Evesham, Hugh of (d. 1287), physician and cardinal, was born, and possibly educated, at Evesham, before first making his name at Oxford University, where he distinguished himself as a peacemaker in various university disputes between 1267 and 1274. However, he sided with the Dominicans against the Franciscans in their battle over evangelical poverty in 1269. In 1275 he was granted licence, as archdeacon of ...

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John Fisher [St John Fisher] (c. 1469–1535) by Hans Holbein the younger The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Fisher, John [St John Fisher] (c. 1469–1535), bishop of Rochester, cardinal, and martyr, was born at Beverley, Yorkshire, the son of Robert Fisher, a mercer of Beverley, and his wife, Agnes. In the early 1480s he went up to Cambridge, where he graduated BA in 1488, aged about twenty, and proceeded MA in 1491. Having become a fellow of ...

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Gasquet, Francis Neil [name in religion Aidan] (1846–1929), cardinal and historian, was born on 5 October 1846 in Somers Town, north London, the third son of the six children of Raymond Gasquet, a physician whose family had emigrated from Toulon during the French Revolution, and his wife, ...

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Francis Neil Gasquet (1846–1929) by James Russell & Sons © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gray, Gordon Joseph (1910–1993), cardinal and Roman Catholic archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh, was born on 10 August 1910 at 143 Leith Walk, Leith, the second son and third of the four children of Francis William Gray (1870–1950), mechanical engineer, and his wife, ...