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See Babbage, Charles


H. M. Stephens

revised by James Falkner

Baker, Sir William Erskine (1808–1881), army officer and engineer, was the fourth son of Captain Joseph Baker RN, and was born on 29 November 1808 at Leith. He was educated at Ludlow and at Addiscombe College (1825–6), and after attending an extended engineering course while a cadet he went out to ...



revised by Alastair W. Massie

Bell, John (1746/7–1798), army officer and inventor, was born in the parish of St Cuthbert's, Carlisle, the eldest son of William Bell, hatter, of Botchergate, Carlisle. He was baptized at St Cuthbert's Church on 22 February 1747. After working in the family business, ...


Bolton, Sir Francis John (1831–1887), army officer and electrical engineer, was the son of Dr Thomas Wilson Bolton, surgeon, of London and Manchester. He enlisted in the Royal Artillery and soon became a non-commissioned officer. He was commissioned ensign in the Gold Coast artillery corps...


R. H. Vetch

revised by James Lunt

By, John (1779–1836), army officer and engineer, was born in 1779, probably on 7 August, in Lambeth, second son of George By and his wife, Mary, née Bryan. After passing through the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned second lieutenant in the ...


Cardew, Philip (1851–1910), army officer and electrical engineer, was born on 24 September 1851 at Oakshade, near Leatherhead, Surrey, the eldest son in a family of four sons and four daughters of Captain Christopher Baldock Cardew, 74th highlanders, of East Hill, Liss (son of ...


Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton (1803–1899) by Sir William Hamo Thornycroft, 1880 © National Portrait Gallery, London


A. J. Arbuthnot

revised by Peter L. Schmitthenner

Cotton, Sir Arthur Thomas (1803–1899), army officer and irrigation engineer, was born on 15 May 1803 at Woodcote, Oxfordshire, the ninth son of Henry Calveley Cotton (d. 1837) of Woodcote House, who served in the royal guards (postal service), and his wife, ...


Donnelly, Sir John Fretcheville Dykes (1834–1902), army officer and promoter of scientific education, born in the Bay of Bombay on 2 July 1834, was the only child of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Donnelly (1802–1881), deputy adjutant-general of the Bombay army, and from 1851 staff captain and afterwards staff officer at the ...


Freeburn, James (1808–1876), army officer and inventor of shell fuses, was born in the parish of St Cuthbert's, Midlothian. At an early age he was apprenticed to a baker. At the age of seventeen he enlisted in the 7th battalion of the Royal Artillery...