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Aldhelm [St Aldhelm] (d. 709/10), abbot of Malmesbury, bishop of Sherborne, and scholar, was a prolific Latin author whose idiosyncratic style of composition in the media of prose and verse, both metrical and rhythmical, was profoundly influential both in England and on the continent up to the Norman conquest. His life is moderately well documented: ...

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Algarotti, Francesco, Count Algarotti in the Prussian nobility (1712–1764), poet and scholar, was born on 11 December 1712 in the family home in Venice on the Fondamenta Nuove, the second son of Rocco Algarotti (d. 1726) and his wife, Maria Mercati. His father was a prosperous merchant of Paduan origin, settled in ...

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Bartholomaeus Anglicus (b. before 1203, d. 1272), Franciscan friar and encyclopaedist, is of unknown parentage, and there is no information about his early years. His association with the Suffolk Glanvilles, reported by John Leland, who identifies Bartholomaeus as Bartholomew de Glanville, depends upon a late fourteenth-century colophon in Cambridge, Peterhouse, MS 67. ...

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Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1823–1887), editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, was born on 24 March 1823 at Wellington, Somerset, the son of Joseph Baynes (for fifty years minister of Wellington's Baptist congregation) and his wife, Anna Day Ash, a descendant of the lexicographer Dr John Ash...

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Bodley, Sir Thomas (1545–1613), scholar, diplomat, and founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, was born on 2 March 1545 in a house on the corner of High Street and Gandy Street, Exeter, the eldest son of John Bodley (c. 1520–1591), religious radical and publisher, of ...

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Bradshaw, Henry (1831–1886), librarian and scholar, the third son and fifth child of Joseph Hoare Bradshaw and Catherine, daughter of Richard Stewart of Ballintoy, co. Antrim, was born at 2 Artillery Place, Finsbury Square, London, on 2 February 1831. His father, a partner in ...

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Casaubon, (Florence Estienne) Meric (1599–1671), scholar and divine, was born on 14 August 1599 in Geneva, the tenth of the seventeen children of Isaac Casaubon (1559–1614), classical scholar and church historian, and his second wife, Florence (1568?–1636), daughter of Henri Estienne. Meric was the most scholarly of ...

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Cheke, Sir John (1514–1557), humanist, royal tutor, and administrator, was born on 16 June 1514 in a house on the corner of Market Hill and Petty Cury in Cambridge, the son of Peter Cheke (d. 1530), administrator, of Cambridge, and his wife, ...

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Clarke, Adam (1762–1832), Wesleyan Methodist minister and scholar, was born in Moybeg, Kilcronaghan parish, co. Londonderry. His father, an Anglican, was a village schoolmaster and farmer; his mother was a Presbyterian. His childhood consisted of a series of life-threatening mishaps. He was educated locally, fell under the influence of the Methodists in 1778, and met ...

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Colebrooke, Henry Thomas (1765–1837), administrator in India and scholar, was born in London on 15 June 1765, youngest son of Sir George Colebrooke, second baronet (1729–1809), banker and for four years chairman of the East India Company (1769–73), and his wife, Mary, daughter of ...

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Dalgairns, John Dobrée [name in religion Bernard] (1818–1876), Roman Catholic priest and scholar, was born on Guernsey on 21 October 1818, the eldest of the six children (three boys and three girls) of William Dalgairns (b. c.1790), an officer in the ...

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Dodwell, Henry (1641–1711), scholar and theologian, was born in late October 1641 in the parish of St Warburgh, Dublin, the only surviving son of William Dodwell (d. 1650), army officer, and his wife, Elizabeth (d. c.1651), daughter of Sir Francis Slingsby...

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Elyot, Sir Thomas (c. 1490–1546), humanist and diplomat, was the only son of Sir Richard Elyot (d. 1522) and his first wife, Alice Delamere, a descendant of the Finderns of Derbyshire. Alice died about 1510 and Sir Richard subsequently married Elizabeth Besilles, whose father, ...

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Erasmus, Desiderius (c. 1467–1536), humanist scholar and reformer, was born in Rotterdam during the night of 27–28 October in the late 1460s—a year about 1467 seems plausible. He was illegitimate, a circumstance that doubtless contributed to the uncertainty attending all record of his origins, family name, and early life. The source of much information is the ...

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Gordon, George Hamilton-, fourth earl of Aberdeen (1784–1860), prime minister and scholar, first child of six sons and a daughter of George Gordon, Lord Haddo (1764–1791), and his wife, Charlotte (or Charles; d. 1795), the youngest daughter of William Baird of Newbyth, Haddingtonshire...

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Hammerton, Sir John Alexander (1871–1949), author and editor of reference works, was born in Alexandria, Dunbartonshire, on 27 February 1871, the second in a family of two sons and one daughter of James Hammerton (1832/3–1874/5), clog maker of Oldham, and his second wife, ...

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Hooper, George (1640–1727), bishop of Bath and Wells and scholar, was born on 18 November 1640 at Grimley, Worcestershire, the son of George Hooper, of a lesser landed gentry family, and his wife, Joan, daughter of Edmund Giles of White Ladies Aston, Worcestershire...

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[Anon.]

revised by R. D. Collison Black

Ingram, John Kells (1823–1907), scholar and economist, born at the rectory of Temple Carne, near Pettigo, Donegal, on 7 July 1823, was the eldest son of William Ingram (1771–1829), then curate of the parish, and his wife, Elizabeth Cooke. Thomas Dunbar Ingram was his younger brother. The family was descended from Scottish Presbyterians who settled in ...

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Isham, Sir Justinian, second baronet (1611–1675), scholar and politician, was born on 20 January 1611 at Lamport Hall, Lamport, Northamptonshire, and was baptized at Lamport on 3 February. He was the third child and only son of Sir John Isham, first baronet (1582–1651)...

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James, Montague Rhodes (1862–1936), college head, scholar, and author, was born at Goodnestone in Kent on 1 August 1862, the fourth and youngest child of Herbert James (1822–1909) and his wife of fifteen years, Mary Emily Horton (1818–1898). When Monty (as he was familiarly known) was three years old his father, a high-minded country parson, became rector of ...