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Anne [Anne of Cleves] (1515–1557), queen of England, fourth consort of Henry VIII, was the daughter of Johann (III), duke of Juliers-Cleves (1490–1539), and Maria (1491–1543), heir of Juliers (or Jülich). From 1511 Johann ruled Juliers in his wife's right and in 1521 inherited ...

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Anne [Anne Boleyn] (c. 1500–1536), queen of England, second consort of Henry VIII, was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, earl of Ormond and of Wiltshire (1476/7–1539), and Elizabeth (d. 1538), daughter of Thomas Howard, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), and his first wife, ...

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Anne (1515–1557) by Hans Holbein the younger, 1539 © Photo RMN – Hervé Lewandowski

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Anne (c. 1500–1536) by unknown artist, late 16th cent. [original, c.1533–6] © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barrington [née Lytton], Judith, Lady Barrington (d. 1657), gentlewoman, was the daughter of the MP Sir Rowland Lytton (d. 1615) of Knebworth, Hertfordshire. Her family had puritan sympathies and was one in which daughters were encouraged to read. In 1612 she married ...

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Blount [married names Tailboys, Fiennes de Clinton], Elizabeth (c. 1500–1539x41), royal mistress, was the second daughter of John Blount of Kinlet (1484–1531) and his wife, Katherine (1483–1540), heir of Sir Hugh Peshall of Knightley and his wife, Isabel Stanley of Elford...

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Boleyn [née Parker], Jane, Viscountess Rochford (d. 1542), courtier, was the daughter of Henry Parker, tenth Baron Morley (1480/81–1556), gentleman usher to Henry VIII, and his wife, Alice (1486–1552), daughter of Sir John St John of Bletsoe. Her elder sister Margaret (...

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See Bryan, Sir Francis [called the Vicar of Hell]

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Elizabeth Campbell, duchess of Argyll and suo jure Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon (bap. 1733, d. 1790) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1758–9 Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight)

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Campbell [née Gunning], Elizabeth, duchess of Argyll and suo jure Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon [other married name Elizabeth Hamilton, duchess of Hamilton and Brandon] (bap. 1733, d. 1790), courtier, was probably born at Hemingford Grey, Huntingdonshire, and was probably baptized there on 7 December 1733, the second of five daughters of ...

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See Coffin, Sir William

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Cromwell [née Bourchier], Elizabeth (1598–1665), lady protectress of England, Scotland, and Ireland, consort of Oliver Cromwell, was one of twelve children of Sir James Bourchier (c.1574–1635), merchant and furrier, and his wife, Frances, daughter of Thomas Crane of Newton Tony, Wiltshire...

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Davis [Davies; married name Paisible], Mary [Moll] (c. 1651–1708), actress and royal mistress, was said to be 'a bastard of Collonell Howard, my Lord Barkeshire' (Pepys, 9.24), a phrase which is more likely to refer to Thomas Howard (bap...

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See Denny, Sir Anthony

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Douglas, Margaret, duchess of Douglas (1714–1774), noblewoman, was the eldest daughter of James Douglas (formerly Campbell) of Mains, Dunbartonshire, a member of a cadet branch of the family of the earls of Morton, and his wife, Isabel, daughter of Hugh Corbet of Hardgray...

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See Dudley, John, duke of Northumberland

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Fitzroy [née Howard], Mary, duchess of Richmond (c. 1519–1555?), noblewoman, was the younger daughter of Thomas Howard, third duke of Norfolk (1473–1554), and his second wife, Elizabeth Howard (1497–1558), eldest daughter of Edward Stafford, third duke of Buckingham, and his wife, Lady Eleanor Percy...

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Grey [married name Dudley], Lady Jane (1537–1554), noblewoman and claimant to the English throne, was the eldest surviving child of Henry Grey, marquess of Dorset, later duke of Suffolk (1517–1554), and Frances (1517–1559), daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and Mary...

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Eleanor Gwyn (1651?–1687) by Gerard Valck, c. 1673 (after Sir Peter Lely, c. 1670) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gwyn, Eleanor [Nell] (1651?–1687), actress and royal mistress, was born, according to a contemporary horoscope, on 2 February 1651. Her parentage remains obscure, as does her place of birth. Nell had a sister named Rose and her mother was Helena (d...