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Brown, Dame Edith Mary (1864–1956), medical missionary and founder of the North India School of Medicine for Christian Women, was born on 24 March 1864 at Bank Buildings, 10A Coats Lane, Whitehaven, Cumberland. One of six children, she was the second of three daughters born to ...

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Caplin, Roxey Ann [formerly Emily Roxey Caplin] (1793–1888), corset maker, writer, and lecturer on health, was born in Canada, the daughter of English settlers; Canadian Indians taught her canoeing and swimming as a child. Probably trained as a milliner, she married about 1835, and by 1839 was living in ...

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R. E. M. Bowden

revised by Ruth E. M. Bowden

Cullis, Winifred Clara (1875–1956), physiologist and educationist, was the younger daughter and the fifth of the six children of Frederick John Cullis (1842–1931), surveyor and civil engineer of the Gloucester Dock Company, and his wife, Louisa, daughter of John Corbett of Coombe Hill...

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Winifred Clara Cullis (1875–1956) by Madame Yevonde, 1944 © Yevonde Portrait Archive; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Fowler, Lydia Folger (1822–1879), physician, author, and lecturer, was born on 5 May 1822 at Nantucket, Massachusetts, USA, the sixth child of Gideon Folger, mechanic, manufacturer, shipowner, and farmer, and his wife, Eunice Macy Folger. She received her early education in Nantucket, where she developed interests in mathematics and astronomy, and later she studied for one year at ...

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Himmelweit [née Litthauer], Hildegard Therese (1918–1989), social psychologist, was born on 20 February 1918 in Berlin, Germany, the younger child and only daughter of Dr Siegfried Litthauer (d. 1935), chemist and industrialist, and his wife, Feodore Remak. Culturally and materially this Jewish family was of high standing. ...

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Susan Sutherland Isaacs (1885–1948) by Enoch Fairhurst, 1935 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Isaacs [née Fairhurst], Susan Sutherland (1885–1948), educational psychologist and psychoanalyst, was born on 24 May 1885, at 32 Bradshaw Brow, Turton, Bolton, Lancashire, the seventh of eight children of William Fairhurst, journalist and Methodist lay preacher, and his wife, Miriam Sutherland. Fairhurst's...

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Jefferys [née Davies], Margaret [Margot] (1916–1999), medical sociologist, was born on 1 November 1916 in Madras, India, the second of three daughters and third among the four children of (James) Arthur Davies, barrister and principal of the Law College in Madras, and his wife, ...

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Kennon, Sidney (d. 1754), midwife and collector, whose family background and education are obscure, distinguished herself initially in her services to the royal family, especially to Queen Caroline and Augusta, princess of Wales. The infant George III was delivered by her. Kennon was highly respected for her professional acumen and, at the time of her death, could command ...

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Mackenzie [née Spence], Dame Helen Carruthers (1859–1945), educationist and public health campaigner, was born on 13 April 1859 at Mortlach, Banffshire, the daughter of William Spence, merchant tailor and provost of Dufftown, and his wife, Mary McDonell. She was educated at the local village school, where she became a pupil teacher, and completed teacher training at the ...

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Malleson [née Whitehead], Elizabeth (1828–1916), educationist and promoter of rural district nursing, was born on 29 October 1828 in Chelsea, London, the eldest of the eleven children of Henry Whitehead, solicitor, of Chelsea, and his wife, Frances Ann, youngest child of Francis Maguire...

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Marley, Hilda Gertrude [name in religion Marie Hilda] (1876–1951), psychologist and educationist, was born at Gaunless Mill, Bishop Auckland, co. Durham, on 13 October 1876, the youngest of seven children of George Marley, a miller, and his wife, Marie Anne Caroline, née...

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McAllister, Anne Hutchison (1892–1983), speech therapist and teacher, the daughter of Robert Dempster McAllister, apothecary, and his wife, Anne Hutchison Macnee, was born at Main Street, Biggar, on 29 November 1892. She graduated MA (1917) and BEd (1924) from Glasgow University, and after teaching in a ...

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McFarlane, Jean Kennedy, Baroness McFarlane of Llandaff (1926–2012), nurse and educationist, was born on 1 April 1926 at 163 Cathedral Road, Cardiff, the fifth and youngest child of James McFarlane (1883/4–1963), dental surgeon, and his wife, Elvina Alice, née Lamb (1882–1990). Her father had qualified as a doctor in ...

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Morley, Muriel Elizabeth (1899–1993), speech therapist, was born on 20 February 1899 at The Wells, Skircoat, Halifax, Yorkshire, the eldest daughter of Samuel Edwin Morley, a boiler composition manufacturer, and his wife, Helen Ann Monk, née Fletcher. Morley was educated at Halifax and ...

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Sharpe, Ella Agnes Freeman (1875–1947), psychoanalyst and schoolteacher, was born on 23 February 1875 at Garden Place, Cross Street, Sudbury, Suffolk, the daughter of Frank Sharpe, silk weaver, and Mary Ann Freeman. Owing to the premature death of her father, Ella Sharpe took on the responsibilities of an eldest son, forgoing the chance to study at ...