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Mears [née Loudon], Eleanor Cowie [Ellen Cowie] (1917–1992), medical practitioner and campaigner, was born on 9 December 1917 at Willowbank, Cleland, Lanarkshire, the second of three children of William Loudon (1888–1958), builder, and his wife, Helen Cowie, née Robertson (1893–1983). Her parents intended to christen her ...

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Stopes [married name Roe], Marie Charlotte Carmichael (1880–1958), sexologist and advocate of birth control, was born at 3 Abercromby Place, Edinburgh, on 15 October 1880, the elder daughter of Henry Stopes (c.1852–1902), an architect from a wealthy brewing family who was interested in archaeology, and his wife, ...

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Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (1880–1958) by Sir Gerald Kelly, 1953 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Wright [née Lowenfeld], Helena Rosa (1887–1982), family planning practitioner and sex therapist, was born in Tulse Hill Road, Brixton, London, on 17 September 1887, the elder daughter of Heinz (later Henry) Lowenfeld (1859–1931), a Polish-Jewish immigrant to Britain, who became a successful entrepreneur and theatre manager, and his wife, ...

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Helena Rosa Wright (1887–1982) by unknown photographer, 1957 [lecturing to midwives in Warsaw] private collection. Photograph courtesy of the Wellcome Library, London